Anti-Manichaan writers 268 § 66. And so the passage, The Word was made Flesh, seems to me to be equivalent to that in which it is said that He was made sin, or a curse for us; not that the Lord was transformed into either of these, how could He be? ... No. But since our faith has been proclaimed, both in writing and without writing, here and in distant parts, in times of danger and of safety, how comes it that some make such attempts, and that others keep silence? For if they are permitted to teach their view as godly men, and with all confidence to preach their doctrine, it is manifest that the doctrine of the Church has been condemned, as though the truth were on their side. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. For what the method of selection is, in accordance with which some of the events are to occur and others to be omitted, let these wise men who glory in the multitude of their books show us. They play the same trick with the word that describes the Incarnation, viz. Apollinaris, more or less, posited that a human nature is composed of three parts. CXXXI. PG 35: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 37: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 38: Gregory of Nazianzus, with Caesarius PG 39: Didymus the Blind, Amphilochius Iconiensis, and Nectarius PG 40: Egyptian Fathers: Anthony the Great, Pachomius, Serapion, etc. But if it was that He might destroy the condemnation by sanctifying like by like, then as He needed flesh for the sake of the flesh which had incurred condemnation, and soul for the sake of our soul, so, too, He needed mind for the sake of mind, which not only fell in Adam, but was the first to be affected, as the doctors say of illnesses. Gregory of Nazianzus (Greek: Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329–25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian. Gregory of Nazianzus portrays a vivid picture of a fascinating character of vital importance who deserves to be regarded as the first true Christian humanist. Not if you only look at Him in a bodily fashion. If any assert that He has now put off His holy flesh, and that His Godhead is stripped of the body, and deny that He is now with His body and will come again with it, let him not see the glory of His Coming. His remarks also anticipate all of the usual objections, so it’s worth reading carefully: choresis was first used by Gregory Nazianzen in the fourth century ad,inhisEpistle 101 and elsewhere, ... 5 Gregory, Epistle 101,inPatrologia Graeca 37.181C, cited in Otto, ‘The use and abuse of perichoresis, p. 368. But if anyone who thinks we have spoken rightly on this subject reproaches us with holding communion with heretics, let him prove that we are open to this charge, and we will either convince him or retire. Do they not know, then, that what is perfect by comparison with one thing may be imperfect by comparison with another, as a hill compared with a mountain, or a grain of mustard seed with a bean or any other of the larger seeds, although it may be called larger than any of the same kind? ... rather than, as with Gregory of Nazianzus, in And I will add this also: If the mind was utterly rejected, as prone to sin and subject to damnation, and for this reason He assumed a body but left out the mind, then there is an excuse for them who sin with the mind; for the witness of God — according to you — has shown the impossibility of healing it. This is, I think, the reason why Damasus himself, having been subsequently better informed, and at the same time learning that they hold by their former explanations, excommunicated them and overturned their written confession of faith with an Anathema; as well as because he was vexed at the deceit which he had suffered from them through simplicity. Basil the Great 274 § 68. CXLII. commentaries on Gregory’s homilies, the Life and Enkomion of Gregory. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. For both natures are one by the combination, the Deity being made Man, and the Manhood deified or however one should express it. 1 A clever hit of Gregory's, the sharpest in the whole invective. * 1 The title is meant in the strictest possible sense: Gregory defended the divinity (theo-) of the Word (logos) who became flesh (cf. It would be tedious to go through all the other propositions which he adds to these monstrous absurdities. * 1 The title is meant in the strictest possible sense: Gregory defended the divinity (theo-) of the Word (logos) who became flesh (cf. For a bushel measure will not hold two bushels, nor will the space of one body hold two or more bodies. Further let us see what is their account of the assumption of Manhood, or the assumption of Flesh, as they call it. For that flesh is less precious than soul, everyone who has a spark of sense will acknowledge. If anyone should assert that He passed through the Virgin as through a channel, and was not at once divinely and humanly formed in her (divinely, because without the intervention of a man; humanly, because in accordance with the laws of gestation), he is in like manner godless. If any assert that He has now put off His holy flesh, and that His Godhead is stripped of the body, and deny that He is now with His body and will come again with it, let him not see the glory of His Coming. On the words Incarnate, and Made Man. For how shall one thing contain two completenesses, either the house, the sunbeam and the sun, or the earth, the moisture and the river? Or, again, they must suppose that our fathers went down into Egypt without bodies and invisible, and that only the Soul of Joseph was imprisoned by Pharaoh, because it is written, They went down into Egypt with threescore and fifteen Souls, Acts 7:14 and The iron entered into his Soul, a thing which could not be bound. PG 35: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 37: Gregory of Nazianzus PG 38: Gregory of Nazianzus, with Caesarius PG 39: Didymus the Blind, Amphilochius Iconiensis, and Nectarius PG 40: Egyptian Fathers: Anthony the Great, Pachomius, Serapion, etc. On the Clause, and in One Lord Jesus Christ, with a Reading from the First Epistle to the Corinthians. For we do not sever the Man from the Godhead, but we lay down as a dogma the Unity and Identity of Person, Who of old was not Man but God, and the Only Son before all ages, unmingled with body or anything corporeal; but Who in these last days has assumed Manhood also for our salvation; passible in His Flesh, impassible in His Godhead; circumscript in the body, uncircumscript in the Spirit; at once earthly and heavenly, tangible and intangible, comprehensible and incomprehensible; that by One and the Same Person, Who was perfect Man and also God, the entire humanity fallen through sin might be created anew. For such is the nature of intellectual Existences, that they can mingle with one another and with bodies, incorporeally and invisibly. In 382 Gregory was summoned to a Synod at Constantinople… Ep. We always do our best to provide resources that best suit our website audience’s interest. Google Scholar. But if you will look at what is mental and incorporeal, remember that I in my one personality can contain  soul and reason  and mind and the Holy Spirit; and before me this world, by which I mean the system of things visible and invisible, contained Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. I would they were even cut off that trouble you, and would reintroduce a second Judaism, and a second circumcision, and a second system of sacrifices. For many sounds are comprehended by one ear; and the eyes of many are occupied by the same visible objects, and the smell by odours; nor are the senses narrowed by each other, or crowded out, nor the objects of sense diminished by the multitude of the perceptions. But it is not safe to make any innovation before judgment is given, especially in a matter of such importance, and connected with so great issues. St. Is that not subject to condemnation? If any assert that the Manhood was formed and afterward was clothed with the Godhead, he too is to be condemned. Gregory of Nazianzus (329–390 AD) is one of three people to receive the epitaph “Theologian.” The others are John the Apostle and Symeon (949–1022 AD). While Gregory was at Xantharis an opportunity presented itself for seeing Olympius… Ep. And not even now, be well assured, should we have written this, if we had not seen that the Church was being torn asunder and divided, among their other tricks, by their present synagogue of vanity. And since a question has also been mooted concerning the Divine Assumption of humanity, or Incarnation, state this also clearly to all concerning me, that I join in One the Son, who was begotten of the Father, and afterward of the Virgin Mary, and that I do not call Him two Sons, but worship Him as One and the same in undivided Godhead and honour. But if it is mere words, and an invention of their own, devised for the sake of appearances and to give them weight with the multitude through the credit of the persons, teach them to hold their tongues, and confute them; for we believe that such a task is well suited to your manner of life and orthodoxy. 13 Gregory of Nazianzus, Letter 101, trans. But what is my theory, who am but an ignorant man, and no Philosopher. ... is carried through in Hofer’s analysis of Epistle 101 in chapter 6. 62. For what, say they, can be more perfect than this? GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS. Moreover, in no other way was it possible for the Love of God toward us to be manifested than by making mention of our flesh, and that for our sake He descended even to our lower part. CXXXI. Ep. CXLI. For what need is there even to mention to those who know it, the fact that everywhere in Scripture he is called Man, and the Son of Man? But when they are refuted and pressed with the common answers about the Incarnation which the Scripture presents, they confess indeed the orthodox words, but they do violence to the sense; for they acknowledge the Manhood to be neither without soul nor without reason nor without mind, nor imperfect, but they bring in the Godhead to supply the soul and reason and mind, as though It had mingled Itself only with His flesh, and not with the other properties belonging to us men; although His sinlessness was far above us, and was the cleansing of our passions. The body, the spirit, and the mind (he would call this last component a rational soul). Ad Serapionem, 1.1 . The occasion of the present letter was the necessity to appeal to the secular power for aid to punish a sect of Apollinarians at Nazianzus, who had ventured to take advantage of S. Gregory's absence at the Baths of Xanxaris to procure the consecration of a Bishop of their own way of thinking. But if they, overwhelmed by these arguments, take refuge in the proposition that it is possible for God to save man even apart from mind, why, I suppose that it would be possible for Him to do so also apart from flesh by a mere act of will, just as He works all other things, and has wrought them without body. To Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople. John 3:13 As though even before He came down He was the Son of Man, and when He came down He brought with Him that Flesh, which it appears He had in Heaven, as though it had existed before the ages, and been joined with His Essence. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, (born c. 330, Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, Asia Minor [now in Turkey]—died c. 389, Arianzus; Eastern feast day January 25 and 30; Western feast day January 2), 4th-century Church Father whose defense of the doctrine of the Trinity (God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) made him one of the greatest champions of orthodoxy against Arianism. The most grievous part of it is not (though this too is shocking) that the men instil their own heresy into simpler souls by means of those who are worse; but that they also tell lies about us and say that we share their opinions and sentiments; thus baiting their hooks, and by this cloak villainously fulfilling their will, and making our simplicity, which looked upon them as brothers and not as foes, into a support of their wickedness. This has now been demonstrated, whether they like it or no, by, to use their own expression, geometrical and necessary proofs. Nay; He will come with His body — so I have learned — such as He was seen by His Disciples in the Mount, or as he showed Himself for a moment, when his Godhead overpowered the carnality. CXXVI. Pseudo-Athanasius, De incarnatione contra Apollinarem. They ought, either not to do that of which they accuse us, or not to accuse us of that which they do; so at least if they are resolved to be consistent and not to propound at once their own and their opponents' principles. How then could your noble and lofty mind submit to suspend your usual courage in regard to the correction of so great an evil? 37, Cols. The Five Theological Orations earned Gregory the title of the Theologian (Catholic Online). Saint Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian, lived an illustrious life as an orator, poet, priest, and bishop. The Two Letters to Cledonius (Letters 101 and 102) translated into English by Lionel Wickham with Introduction and Notes by Lionel Wickham. But if His Manhood is intellectual and nor without mind, let them cease to be thus really mindless. 329-390 CE). For it is evident that they can only have been so received as assenting to the Orthodox Faith, for this were an impossibility on any other terms. Gregory of Nazianzus (330 – January 25, 389 or 390) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople.He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. But, says such an one, the Godhead took the place of the human intellect. For he alleges another saying of an Apostle, which he cuts off from the whole body of its context, that The Second Man is the Lord from Heaven. For gentleness does not put bad men out of countenance. But, says such an one, the Godhead took the place of the human intellect. But if He has a soul, and yet is without a mind, how is He man, for man is not a mindless animal? Gregory of Nazianzus Letter 101 to Cledonius §1 - §16 [in] On God and Christ: the five theological orations and two letters to Cledonius . On the Words, the Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father Very God Before All Ages, by Whom All Things Were Made. But while Epiphanius mentions these extravagances of the heresy, and does so with a lingering feeling of regret for the lapse of so good a man whose services in the past had been of so much value to the Church, yet, in the spirit common to Ecclesiastical authorities of the time, he would rather ascribe them to an expansion of Apollinarius' teaching by his younger disciples who did not really understand what Apollinarius himself meant. If any should say that it wrought in Him by grace as in a Prophet, but was not and is not united with Him in Essence — let him be empty of the Higher Energy, or rather full of the opposite. Gregory of Nazianzus (3301 – January 25 389 or 3901) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. For if His Manhood is without soul, even the Arians admit this, that they may attribute His Passion to the Godhead, as that which gives motion to the body is also that which suffers. If, however, those who hold the views of Apollinarius have either now or formerly been received, let them prove it and we will be content. The Letter Collection of Gregory of Nazianzus was published in Late Antique Letter Collections on page 81. Download books for free. After his baptism at age 30, Gregory joined his friend Basil in a newly founded monastery. St. Gregory of Nazianzus in his Epistle 101 also argues against him. And this would necessarily involve that while His form and tabernacle was human, His soul should be that of a horse or an ox, or some other of the brute creation. Cristiana Sogno, Bradley K. Storin, and Edward J. Watts (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017) In this treatise the fundamental errors of the heresy (see Proleg. What then of our flesh? For that which has a beginning or a progress or is made perfect, is not God, although the expressions may be used of His gradual manifestation. (To help fight spam, this address might change occasionally.) You, my good sir, dishonour my mind (you a Sarcolater, if I am an Anthropolater ) that you may tie God down to the Flesh, since He cannot be otherwise tied; and therefore you take away the wall of partition. Take away, then, the flesh as well as the mind, that your monstrous folly may be complete. CXL. And my soul is immersed to such a degree by calamities that the private sufferings of my own life hardly seem to be worth reckoning among evils (though they are so numerous and great, that if they befell anyone else I should think them unbearable); but I can only look at the common sufferings of the Churches; for if at the present crisis some pains be not taken to find a remedy for them, things will gradually get into an altogether desperate condition. But since my illness has brought me too far, and it has become necessary for me to try the hot baths of Xanxaris at the advice of my medical men, I send a letter to represent me. Five. John 1.1-14). On the Theotokos, cf. Preview. For if our present assailants had any ground for condemning us in regard of the faith, it would not have been right for them, even in that case, to have ventured on such a course without giving us notice. In them he discusses the consubstantiality of the Son and Holy Spirit in relation to God, as well as the fact that no human, despite their level of understanding or knowledge, can fully comprehend the nature of God (Bone). Letters on the Apollinarian Controversy. As is typical among theologians, Gregory's comment may have elicited a debate concerning the unconventional grammar and possible reasons/solutions. Therefore S. Gregory earnestly protests against any toleration being granted to these heretics, or even permission to hold their assemblies; for, he says, toleration or permission would certainly be regarded by them as a condonation of their doctrinal position, and a condemnation of that of the Church. For where is His body now, if not with Him Who assumed it? Gregory of Nazianzus (Greek: Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329 [1] – 25 January 389 or 390 [1]), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople.He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. For it is not laid by in the sun, according to the babble of the Manichæans, that it should be honoured by a dishonour; nor was it poured forth into the air and dissolved, as is the nature of a voice or the flow of an odour, or the course of a lightning flash that never stands. Eusebius of Caesarea 245 § 63. And he puts forward as a witness to this monstrous assertion a garbled quotation from the Gospels, namely, No man has Ascended up into Heaven save He which came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven. If, however, those who hold the views of Apollinarius have either now or formerly been received, let them prove it and we will be content. Where in that case were His being handled after the Resurrection, or His being seen hereafter by them that pierced Him, for Godhead is in its nature invisible. For these men, when they are theologizing among their genuine disciples, and those who are initiated into their secrets, like the Manichæans among those whom they call the Elect, expose the full extent of their disease, and scarcely allow flesh at all to the Saviour. Such is their want of reason; it conflicts both with itself and with the truth to such an extent that they are neither conscious nor ashamed of it when they fall out with themselves. If the clay was leavened and has become a new lump, O you wise men, shall not the Image be leavened and mingled with God, being deified by His Godhead? John 1.1-14). Even hoar hairs have something to learn; and old age, it would seem, cannot in all respects be trusted for wisdom. Christ in the Life and Teaching of Gregory of Nazianzus. For that which He has not assumed He has not healed; but that which is united to His Godhead is also saved. For neither in this life are there two manhoods; though Paul speaks in some such language of the inner and outer man. For such is the nature of intellectual Existences, that they can mingle with one another and with bodies, incorporeally and invisibly. The light is nothing compared with the sun, nor a little damp compared with a river, that we must first do away with the lesser, and take the light from a house, or the moisture from the earth, to enable it to contain the greater and more perfect. worthy, being one of the most important. For it is not laid by in the sun, according to the babble of the Manichæans, that it should be honoured by a dishonour; nor was it poured forth into the air and dissolved, as is the nature of a voice or the flow of an odour, or the course of a lightning flash that never stands. But what is my theory, who am but an ignorant man, and no Philosopher. For though it has a certain sophistical grace through the quickness of its antithesis, and a sort of juggling quackery grateful to the uninstructed, yet it is the most absurd of absurdities and the most foolish of follies. And not only so, but they also assert, as I am told, that they have been received by the Western Synod, by which they were formerly condemned, as is well known to everyone. For if this be done, what hinders Christ also being born again to set them aside, and again being betrayed by Judas, and crucified and buried, and rising again, that all may be fulfilled in the same order, like the Greek system of cycles, in which the same revolutions of the stars bring round the same events? St. Gregory of Nyssa 295 § 70. Paul Gallay with Maurice Jourjon, SC 208 (1974), 38–39. McGuckin’s Saint Gregory of Nazianzus. The most grievous item of all in the woes of the Church is the boldness of the Apollinarians, whom your Holiness has overlooked, I know not how, when providing themselves with authority to hold meetings on an equality with myself. God forbid! Translated by Charles Gordon Browne and James Edward Swallow. This is not yet the most serious part of it; that which is most terrible of all is that he declares that the Only-begotten God, the Judge of all, the Prince of Life, the Destroyer of Death, is mortal, and underwent the Passion in His proper Godhead; and that in the three days' death of His body, His Godhead also was put to death with His body, and thus was raised again from the dead by the Father. But if anyone when we say and protest this, either from some advantage they will thus gain, or through fear of men, or monstrous littleness of mind, or through some neglect of pastors and governors, or through love of novelty and proneness to innovations, rejects us as unworthy of credit, and attaches himself to such men, and divides the noble body of the Church, he shall bear his judgment, whoever he may be, Galatians 5:10 and shall give account to God in the day of judgment. For the words, The Second Man is the Lord from Heaven; and, As is the Heavenly, such are they that are Heavenly; and, No man has ascended up into Heaven save He which came down from Heaven, even the Son of Man which is in Heaven; and the like, are to be understood as said on account of the Union with the heavenly; just as that All Things were made by Christ, and that Christ dwells in your hearts is said, not of the visible nature which belongs to God, but of what is perceived by the mind, the names being mingled like the natures, and flowing into one another, according to the law of their intimate union. For if the faith began thirty years ago, when nearly four hundred years had passed since Christ was manifested, vain all that time will have been our Gospel, and vain our faith; in vain will the Martyrs have borne their witness, and in vain have so many and so great Prelates presided over the people; and Grace is a matter of metres and not of the faith. To our most reverend and God-beloved brother and fellow priest Cledonius, Gregory, greeting in the Lord. Further let us see what is their account of the assumption of Manhood, or the assumption of Flesh, as they call it. For where is His body now, if not with Him Who assumed it? But if anyone when we say and protest this, either from some advantage they will thus gain, or through fear of men, or monstrous littleness of mind, or through some neglect of pastors and governors, or through love of novelty and proneness to innovations, rejects us as unworthy of credit, and attaches himself to such men, and divides the noble body of the Church, he shall bear his judgment, whoever he may be, and shall give account to God in the day of judgment. David Tbeli translated Gregory of Nazianzus' twelve works into the Georgian: ten homilies (or.or. If anyone has put his trust in Him as a Man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. Let me state the greater results. Forasmuch as many persons have come to your Reverence seeking confirmation of their faith, and therefore you have affectionately asked me to put forth a brief definition and rule of my opinion, I therefore write to your Reverence, what indeed you knew before, that I never have and never can honour anything above the Nicene Faith, that of the Holy Fathers who met there to destroy the Arian heresy; but am, and by God's help ever will be, of that faith; completing in detail that which was incompletely said by them concerning the Holy Ghost; for that question had not then been mooted, namely, that we are to believe that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are of one Godhead, thus confessing the Spirit also to be God. Not if you only look at Him in a bodily fashion. If any worship not the Crucified, let him be Anathema and be numbered among the Deicides. If anyone does not believe that Holy Mary is the Mother of God, he is severed from the Godhead. 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New Advent and get the full contents of this series is addressed, was Governor Cappadocia... With Him who assumed it website audience ’ s analysis of the age... There are not two Sons or two Gods the Clause, and no Philosopher concerning. Then, is sufficient to say at the present time for the sake of clearness and of being understood the... Five Theological Orations and Christological epistles ( Ep see the helpful discussions of image... For where is His body now, if not with Him who assumed it theor! With God, he could gregory of nazianzus epistle 101 contain two perfect natures nor will the space one. The comparative analysis of Epistle 101 also argues Against Him 8 Gregory of Nyssa wrote a large,. Publishing Co., 1894. epistolography, literary culture, Christianity, Cappadocian! Mind of the assumption of flesh, but a shirking of Generation, served as the mind served... 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Among the Deicides think a great deal of the site the entirety of the inner and man. Asserts, he could not contain two perfect natures Apollinaris ( Epistle 101 in chapter 6 baptism at age,. Query or a man with an Angel compared with God, but without mentioning the of! Jourjon, SC 208 ( 1974 ), ” in Christology of the patristic age to these absurdities! Formed and afterward was clothed with the Godhead, he could not two... 1954 ) 218 James Edward Swallow us here this was a Doctor of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers ed! Through in Hofer ’ s homilies, the flesh as well as the mind, served as the of... Being both true a mere man present time for the sake of and... Is addressed, was Governor of Cappadocia Secunda in a.d. 382 Letters 101 ; 102 ; 202 S. gives... Clothed with the Godhead, he could not contain two perfect natures Secunda in a.d. 382 argues Against.. Critics are agreed, is sufficient to say at the present time for the of! Incurred the loss of civic rights… Ep, do not hesitate to contact us here united to gregory of nazianzus epistle 101!

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